Nanobacterium was first discovered in 1988 by a Finish biochemist named Olavi Kajander. In examining cell cultures that would die no matter the care taken in their preparation, he found organisms that resembled bacteria, but were one hundred times smaller, and seemed to thrive inside the dying cells. Kajander observed these nanobacteria with shells of calcium phosphate. His research found that these nanobacteria were at the center of kidney stones, aneurysms, calcified residue from ovarian cancer patients, and calcified artery samples. In studies at the Mayo Clinic it was determined that nanobacteria replicate themselves and are life forms.linic it was determined that nanobacteria replicate themselves and are life forms. Kajander and microbiologist Neva Ciftcioglu related the involvement of nanobacteria with human disease in 1998. "The researchers had observed, through an electron microscope, nanobacteria particles building shells of calcium phosphate around themselves. They began to investigate whether such particles played a role in causing kidney stones, which are also made of calcium compounds. Sure enough, at the center of several stones was a nanobacteria particle."David McKay, chief scientist for astrobiology at NASA's Johnson Space Center said, "Whether these are bacteria or not - it doesn't matter at this point. What matters is if we can figure out the association between nanobacteria and kidney stones and develop some kind of countermeasure."Subsequently, researchers from the University of Vienna Medical Center found nanobacteria in calcified residue from ovarian cancer patients. In other studies nanobacteria were observed in calcified artery samples. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible involvement of nanobacteria wherever calcification is contributing to health conditions. It has been suggested that approximately 177,500 patients were discharged from U.S. hospitals with kidney stones and related conditions in 2001. In 2001 another 25,000 patients were diagnosed with ovarian cancer along with another 14,000 who died from conditions aggravated by calcified arteries.